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The boy who carries a whip in the frontispiece is younger than the boy who whips his nanny in the second story. The filthy child in the title story is younger than flying Robert.

The ageing process is visualized quite emphatically in the ninth story. The Hans who is dragged out of the river is significantly older than the Hans who has his eye on the swallows in the first picture.

At the opening of the story, Hans is still a small, chubby boy with an open and innocent expression on his face.

The boy who finally emerges from the water is considerably taller and thinner, and his introverted facial expression clearly indicates that he has grown sadder and wiser.

Thus, while the series of the various Struwwelpeter stories seems to deal with the adventures of an arbitrary selection of children that are unrelated to each other, the set evoked by the visual rhymes sketches the contours of a rudimentary Bildungsroman , which relates the coming-of-age of a young Everyman.

This climax has puzzled many a reader who argues in favour of the repressive nature of Der Struwwelpeter , as flying does not really seem to be much of a punishment.

However, as a conclusion to a set which is suggestive of a Bildungsroman , it begins to make sense. Let me first point out that we have come full circle when Robert takes off.

His flight refers back to the frontispiece. The visual prologue depicts a heavenly creature who may descend to earth in order to distribute gifts, most notably, a picture book.

This product of the imagination may lift the minds of those who are fortunate enough to receive it. The final scene depicts an earthly being who ascends to heaven.

This scene is emphatically presented to us as another product of the imagination, that is, a painting. Thus, the promise of transcendence offered by the prologue is fulfilled in the final scene.

Perhaps the order in which the stories are presented to us is not all that arbitrary after all. Having come this far, we may now intervene in the perennial debate about the pedagogical implications of Der Struwwelpeter in an informed manner.

This point of view became truly dominant in the sixties and seventies, when anti-authoritarian approaches to child rearing became popular amongst the highly educated elite.

The moderates grant that Hoffmann was indeed intent on instilling the conventional Biedermeier catalogues of vices and virtues into the hearts and minds of his young audience, but they also have it that the stories contain subliminal messages that do not tally with established pedagogical lore.

In fact, he was frequently taken to task for the ironical, playful aspects of his stories, which undermined their apparently pedagogical purposes.

Critics particularly found fault with his illustrations, which, they felt, were too "fratzenhaft" frolicsome and as such, made fun of adult authorities.

They were dead right. Der Struwwelpeter does not teach established morality. One could say that it teaches children certain things about the power of the imagination.

In other words, one could regard Der Struwwelpeter as a form of aesthetic education, which gives children an idea of sublimation, which is something entirely different from repression.

A close reading of Der Struwwelpeter suggests that irony may even arise when words and pictures represent the exact same events and characters.

However, this does not necessarily prove that irony is endemic in the picture book, as Nodelman would have it. In other words, the presence and degree of irony in a picture book is supposedly directly proportional to the discrepancies between the verbal and the visual story.

But irony is not necessarily a case of divergence on the level of story components, as I have tried to point out. Maybe the taxonomical effort fails to reach its goal because critics still have not found an effective vocabulary for analyzing this genre.

In any case, one should always try to select those concepts that enable the critic to come to terms with the artifactual nature of the picture book, its inherent materiality, or, in other words, with the contents of the form.

Hoffmann published the first edition of his picture book in , which contained five stories in all. My references are to this edition, which contains the following stories, besides the frontispiece and the title story:.

The term is used by Andrea Schwenke Wyile to refer to books "wherein the overall meaning of the text is achieved by the interplay between the words and the pictures" Schwenke Wyile It is, however, strongly theatrical, in the sense that somebody is put up for display and the audience is explicitly invited to look at him.

Johannes Baumgartner, Der Struwwelpeter: This does not imply that sets always generate stories. Sets are not necessarily narrative.

However, in this collection of stories, they certainly are. This concept originated in the anti-authoritarian pedagogical climate of the seventies of the previous century.

See Sipe for a survey of the various metaphors used to designate the word-image relation in the picture book. Baumgartner, Johannes, Der Struwwelpeter: Dahrendorf, Malte, "Der Ideologietransport in der klassischen Kinderliteratur: Frey, Charles, "Heinrich Hoffmann: Struwwelpeter," in The Literary Heritage of Childhood: An Appraisal of Classics in the Western Tradition.

Charles Frey and John Griffith, eds. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Lewis, David, "Going along with Mr Gumpy: Nodelman, Perry, Words about Pictures: The University of Georgia Press, Nodelman, Perry, "The Eye and the I: New Haven and London: Yale University Press, Petzold, Diete, "Die Lust am erhobenen Zeigefinger: Ries, Hans, "Der Struwwelpeter: Thiele, Jens, Das Bilderbuch: A Nazi Story Book.

Both Germany and the United States have moralistic traditions of childhood instruction reaching back to the formative periods of their cultural origins.

Punishment made vivid by its violence is a didactic theme that spans the centuries. The verses in this work were accompanied by moral lessons that drew pointed conclusions for young readers about the application of the stories to their life and conduct.

Demers and Moyles In the German tradition, this moralistic and religious strain was counterbalanced somewhat in the nineteenth century by a more scientifically-oriented informational genre, the "Sachbuch," or informational book, which originated in the works of Johann Amos Comenius Orbis Pictus and Johann Bernhard Basedow Ein Vorrath der besten Erkenntnisse.

Was soll damit ein Kind, dem man einen Tisch und einen Stuhl abbildet? I saw all sorts of things in the bookstores, expertly drawn, glowingly painted, fairy tales, stories, scenes of life among Indians and robbers.

What is a child supposed to do with the reproduction of a table or a chair? What the child sees in the book is a table and a chair, whether it is larger or smaller; it just is a table, whether the child can sit at it or on it or not.

And to talk of original or copy, greater or smaller, is simply out of the question…. What his brief critique of the folio volume reveals is his imaginative capacity to envision how a child is likely to perceive objects represented in a book.

Perhaps the most revealing phrase of Hoffmann is "was es in dem Buche sieht, das ist ihm ein Stuhl und ein Tisch … ob es daran oder darauf sitzen kann oder nicht.

He insists that, to the child, the object is not an abstraction or a concept, but rather a real object: Twain objected to the sentimental and didactic abstraction of much literature available to or aimed at young audiences in the American republic.

He cannot be said to have been free from it so much as to have made a radical departure within it. The good little boy is Jacob Blivens, and he is destroyed by a nitroglycerine explosion.

He loved to live, you know, and this was the most unpleasant feature about being a Sunday-School book boy. He knew it was not healthy to be good" qtd.

Like Hoffmann, he was somewhat embarrassed by the enormous success of some of his works and would have preferred to have acquired a more serious reputation for the work he considered his best and most important.

As he wrote, " Struwwelpeter is the best known book in Germany, and has the largest sale known to the book trade, and the widest circulation" , 9.

In a time when the members of the Clemens family, as his daughter Clara later wrote, "were compelled to spend every German mark as if it were an American dollar," "owing to financial losses," any scheme to turn a quick profit was appealing.

Samuel Clemens placed his translation of Struwwelpeter , carefully wrapped and adorned with a huge red ribbon, beneath the Christmas tree.

He seated himself near the tree and read the verses aloud in his inimitable, dramatic manner. He was a good actor!

He knew the verses by heart and required only the uncertain light of the candles to prevent his getting off the rhythmical path.

Jean and Susie and I were very youthful and susceptible. And how we laughed when he eloquently pictured the careless Hans walking straight into the pond among all the little fishes!

All because the poor boy could not remove his eyes from the sky! There is an impious spirit of contrariness in the verses of this work that appealed to Father, suffering as he was from the blue Berlin mood of those first few weeks.

The man who dipped the recalcitrant boy into the ink-bottle was after his own heart. How often had Father wanted to dip interrupting intruders into his own ink-bottle and watch them slink away in a black garb of shining fluid!

Significantly, Clara finds the "impious spirit of contrariness" in both child and adult in Slovenly Peter. The Pain-killer "was simply fire in liquid form," but Aunt Polly is convinced that it is good for Tom, until Peter goes on a wild rampage after receiving a treatment of it.

Peter sprang a couple of yards in the air, and then delivered a war-whoop and set off round and round the room, banging against furniture, upsetting flower pots, and making general havoc.

Next he rose on his hind feet and pranced around, in a frenzy of enjoyment, with his head over his shoulder and his voice proclaiming his unappeasable happiness.

Then he went tearing around the house, again spreading chaos and destruction in his path. Aunt Polly entered in time to see him throw a few double somersets, deliver a final mighty hurrah, and sail through the open window, carrying the rest of the flower-pots with him.

Aunt Polly felt a sudden pang of remorse. This was putting the thing in a new light; what was cruelty to a cat might be cruelty to a boy too.

Here Mark Twain has reversed the customary didactic relationship. Lewis Carroll achieved a similar purpose in Alice in Wonderland when he satirized stories in which "friends" the Rationalist euphemism for adult authority figures taught children lessons such as "if you cut your finger very deeply with a knife, it usually bleeds" However, Mark Twain dramatized the conflict, not merely as a battle between pedagogical styles, but as a question of perspective and values.

The hunter is near-sighted, like Aunt Polly. He goes out "to have some fun," as the translation glosses his intention.

Hoffmann was more blunt: Gibson translates it in Der Struwwelpeter Polyglott , "to see the hare and shoot him dead. The hunter succumbs to his weaknesses as a human being: What follows is a carnivalesque comedy: Incidentally, perhaps the figure of the hare with the spectacles and gun also foreshadows, though it is probably too audacious to assert that it inspired, the character of the imperious White Rabbit with his white kid-gloves, coat, and watch on a chain in Alice in Wonderland.

Here, as elsewhere in Struwwelpeter , the density and intensity of physical sensations is noteworthy: Hoffmann extrapolates familiar sensations and figures into grotesque exaggerations that are still linked to the familiar through elements of the mundane.

Jack Zipes points out in an essay published in that "no clear-cut reasons are given for the behavior or for the punishment" in Struwwelpeter , and he indicts the book for glorifying obedience to arbitrary authority Some critics have recoiled from the violence of these tales, as Thomas Freeman does in an essay in the Journal of Popular Culture , in which he states "I do not agree that these poems can be justified as suitable reading material for small children.

Both the stories of Conrad and Paulina play upon some of the worst fears which can torment a child" Freeman attacks the lessons of the stories as he sees them: Instead we are told to behave—or else" While the stories—verses and pictures—have undoubted cautionary and instructional content, they are also suffused with a wry combination of humor, extravagance, and pragmatism.

Even the stories with the clear, unquestionable morals have an odd, distinct quality that transcends their teaching purpose. One way of examining this odd quality is to say that there are two conflicting, yet equally valid ways of regarding this book.

The first is that Hoffmann evokes, through a vivid exploration of its opposite, a comfortable childhood world in which children do not burn to death, are not dipped in ink or bitten by a dog until they bleed, do not have their thumbs cut off, do not starve to death, or even normally pull tablecloths onto the floor, fall into canals, or fly away in storms—except in their imaginations.

The other, perhaps complementary way of regarding this book is to see it as a work in which children are the central actors. This is not a realm of dry, factual information, nor is it a realm in which adults are in the foreground.

It is an active stage, with energetic, assertive figures, starkly outlined, sometimes surprisingly alone. In existential isolation, boldly disobedient characters defy authority and suffer the consequences.

If one were to imagine the improbable fiction of a child reared entirely upon a diet of Struwwelpeter and nothing else, it would be more likely to say, as an adult, "Here I stand, I can do no other," or "Give me liberty or give me death" than "Life has no meaning" or "Hell is other people.

What, then, does Mark Twain, the archetypal American author, do with this very German set of stories? Samuel Clemens devoted considerable energy to learning the German language and chronicled some of his frustration with the complexities of German grammar in his essay "The Awful German Language," published as an appendix to A Tramp Abroad in He was confounded by the many cases and difficult declinations, but he turned his frustration into comedy, coining some of the most hilarious descriptions of German linguistic practices ever.

In German a young lady has no sex, while a turnip has. Think what overwrought reverence that shows for the turnip and what callous disrespect for the girl….

I translate this from a conversation in one of the best German Sunday-school books:. To continue with the German genders: Horses are sexless, dogs are male, cats are female—tomcats included, of course.

The inventor of the language probably got what he knew about a conscience from hearsay. Twain was one of the great cultural interpreters of his time, writing widely-circulated books that influenced how Americans saw Europe and Europeans.

In A Tramp Abroad and elsewhere, he represented German culture with a mixture of reverence, irreverent comedy, satire, and frustration.

He described romantic scenes such as the Lorelei and the castle at Heidelberg with relish, but he was particularly fascinated by the elaborate rituals of the Burschenschaften student fraternities at the university, and described their duels in great detail.

He pretended to raft down the Neckar as one would raft down the Mississippi River, and he wrote a brief burlesque of a Black Forest novel, which turns on the question of whose manure pile is the largest.

The great difficulty that Twain faced in translating Struwwelpeter was to retain some of the idiomatic flavor of the original while still writing rhyming verse.

One can think of the effort of translation as a scale of choices, from literal on the one side to highly interpretive and inventive on the other. The dangers of the literal approach include woodenness, incomprehensibility, or awkwardness because of idioms, metaphors, or phrases that are not used in the target language.

Word-for-word translation tends towards lifelessness and artificiality. The perils at the other end of the scale are obvious: As Mark Twain himself stated, "Poetry is a sandy road to travel, and the only way to pull through at all is to lay your grammar down and take hold with both hands.

Twain loved to dramatize intellectual labor as struggle and conflict, as is evident in his violent metaphors throughout his humorous essays and speeches about the German language.

As in his writings about Germany in A Tramp Abroad and elsewhere, Twain puts a selective and distinctly American spin on the material.

By intensifying certain elements that are present in the original, he estranges them from their culture of origin and puts a specifically American and Twainian stamp on them.

Twain translates the description of the "kohlpechraben-schwarzer Moor" rather literally as the "coal-pitch-raven-black young Moor.

He also calls the boy "that poor pitch-black piteous Moor," and, most offensively, "that Niggerkin. Similarly, Twain intensifies the violence of the story in American frontier fashion.

Waves his shears, the heartless grub, And calls for Dawmenlutscher-bub. Meantime the atlas, gone astray, Has drifted many yards away.

What I am suggesting is that Twain adds a strong flavor of fascination with the absurd, grotesque, and violent to his rendition, going considerably beyond the "spirit of the original.

Hoffmann mentions the wine as a matter of course; Twain, coming from a society in which alcohol was a subject of religious controversy, emphasizes it with libertine pleasure in the violation of taboo.

In A Tramp Abroad , he pursued a similar theme when he wrote about relations of German professors with their students:. There seems to be no chilly distance existing between the German students and the professor but, on the contrary, a companionable intercourse, the opposite of chilliness and reserve.

When the professor enters a beer-hall in the evening where students are gathered these rise up and take off their caps and invite the old gentleman to sit with them and partake.

He accepts and the pleasant talk and the beer flow for an hour or two, and by and by the professor, properly charged and comfortable, gives a cordial good night, while the students stand bowing and uncovered.

And then he moves on his happy way homeward with all his vast cargo of learning afloat in his hold. Nobody finds fault or feels outraged.

No harm has been done. It is utterly unprincipled and outrageous to say ate when you mean eat, and you must never do it except when crowded for a rhyme" Except in translating" Mark Twain emphasizes himself as the interpreter and teller of the tales, which he embellishes with themes that are preoccupations of the frontier.

Yet Mark Twain misses something essentially German in the original, and substitutes something quintessentially American in the process. Perhaps his subtly eccentric interpretation of the "Story of Flying Robert" provides an aptly epigrammatic conclusion symbolic of this transposition.

Hoffmann concludes with the cryptic image of an unknowable fate that befalls boy, umbrella, and hat as they are carried away:.

Though Hoffmann emphasizes universal limits: But Twain describes it thus:. Oh, where on high can that hat be? When you find out, pray come tell me.

Ein Vorrath der besten Erkenntnisse. New York and London: Demers, Patricia and Gordon Moyles, eds. From Instruction to Delight: Geschichte des deutschen Jugendbuches.

His Songs and His Sayings. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Walter Blair and Victor Fischer. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: U of California P, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

Oxford and New York: The March-banks Press, Harold Begbie and F. Petrol Peter ; The Marlborough Struwwelpeter ; The Modern Struwwelpeter ; and a couple of Guinness advertising booklets produced during the s and later.

The problem with satires, however, is that their topicality usually constitutes a block to later understanding as the targets of humor fade into obscurity.

Working with Emile Levassor, he put this vehicle on sale in , and it was still a novelty in In the picture, the dog takes the place and role of the doctor sitting next to the bed where the heavily bandaged Adolphus lies prostrate.

The drivers of the earliest roofless motorcars needed to be thickly clad for their journeys, and for this animal-like appearance Struwwelpeter himself provided a grotesque model.

The eponymous Petrol Peter is wrapped up in a dirty fur coat, wears goggles and a big hat, and has hands filthy from dealing with the car.

Like many other inventions, the motorcar was perceived as both fascinating and dangerous, and its enthusiasts were regarded as objects of derision.

In his guise as a washerwoman, having taken over the steering wheel of a car whose driver offered him a lift, he gives voice to his monomania: I am the Toad, the motor car snatcher, the prison-breaker, the Toad who always escapes!

Sit still, and you shall know what driving really is, for you are in the hands of the famous, the skilful, the entirely fearless Toad!

The sentiments expressed in The Wind in the Willows have the same flavor of fantastic comic adventure we find in Petrol Peter , but the earlier book, like its source, has a sharper edge to it.

Unlike Harriet, Henry survives; but the destruction of his car, now reduced to "some twisted scrap," is described as a thousand pounds gone up in smoke.

Their cars are "forfeit to the Crown. Females figure even less often in the stories of Petrol Peter than in Struwwelpeter. Dealing with world travel, it satirizes our insouciant hero as he nearly comes to grief with a llama in the Himalayas and alligators in the Amazon.

Let us forget the common and probably deliberate confusion of llamas and lamas in the Himalayas. Two natives rescue poor Johnny from the river, while the alligators commiserate:.

Sir Quinbus, who was once "as slim as slim could be," now has a powerful Napier to drive, gives up his horse, and as a result becomes as fat as Daniel Lambert, who weighed pounds at his death.

Petrol Peter satirizes a new fashion and a select section of society—those wealthy enough to afford the huge expense of a motorcar—and there is a good deal of comedy at the expense of those who were daring or foolhardy enough to try out this new means of locomotion.

Archibald Williams wrote a variety of books on engineering, railways, modern inventions, exploration, and things to make, so his humor is accordingly affectionate rather than envious or mordant.

But the nature of his commentary and his allusions in Petrol Peter make it plain that he was writing for a comfortably off, middle- to upper-class readership.

The Marlborough Struwwelpeter , by A. Williams probably no relation to Archibald , 5 was aimed at the same readership but a more restricted audience.

It was published not by one of the major London publishing houses, but by the "Times" Office, Marlborough, and its chief purchasers were presumably present and former pupils of Marlborough College, their parents and relatives, and the teachers and staff.

The college, one of the leading Victorian public schools, opened on 20 August , when two hundred boys of all ages up to sixteen arrived at its portals.

By the time Arthur de Coetlogon Williams entered the school in September , it had celebrated its jubilee and established its own character.

The Marlborough Struwwelpeter is the product of an eighteen-year-old still at school. The illustrations clearly depict the same person.

Various other boys are also named, usually with nicknames, so it is impossible to identify any of them with certainty. He was clearly a figure of some authority, the author of An Introduction to Greek Sculpture If one takes away the stiff Edwardian shirt collar, this description fits the traditional schoolboy for much of the twentieth century.

The next story is of "Cruel Dux," that is, the captain of the house rugby team, who attacks even his house prefect and his forward, who is busily engaged in brewing tea and cooking sausage and mash on a little gas ring placed on top of a book.

Dux, however, has miscalculated with the forward, who strikes back with a blow to the face that sends the captain to bed "in Sicker," namely, the sick bay.

The muffins that he is offered on a "steward stick" are "enough to make him sick," as he can hear the match in the distance.

The story ends with a comically appalling rhyme: Smoking seems to have always been a problem for school authorities. We are thus not surprised to see "Harriet and the Matches" transformed with little effort into "The Dreadful Story about Tomkins and the Tobacco.

The role of the cats is interestingly modified. They are guilty of that very English sin of being prigs. Only when they drop "their moralising fads" are they able to become "quite decent lads" and be included in the group again.

I assume these are exercises in composing Latin verse, at this time a staple of the process of learning Latin and especially the quantity of syllables.

As mentioned earlier, Jonathan is one of the other boys, and the one who faces him on the other side of the picture is a black youth, presumably the one called Bambasta.

The "Good Sergeant Patrick" mentioned in the last few lines of the story does not figure in the college register or the history, but no doubt he was a real person.

Occasionally a ball would be driven into the common room windows. Eventually the nuisance caused the game to be modified and wickets to be chalked instead on a wall skirting the Bath road.

In the game was described as dragging on a hole-and-corner existence. Robert, the boy who replaces Conrad in this story, is a devotee of Snob and is warned to avoid the game by a plump red-coated, white-haired gentleman referred to as "Uncle.

Robert is punished by having his legs struck off by Mr. Grace — , who scored his hundredth century in first-class cricket in He was a regular and much admired visitor to the college.

Consequently, for lack of exercise, he grows so fat that on the fifth day he bursts. His success causes his head to swell and his pink-and-yellow waistcoat and crude-colored socks to buoy him up in the air.

He commits the unpardonable sin of being stuck up and above the rest. The book thus ends with these lines:. Instead, I want to conclude with two of the advertising booklets produced by Arthur Guinness and Sons in celebration of their amazing product.

Each booklet presents a Hoffmann character among a set of parodies of popular verses by authors as diverse as Mary and Jane Taylor, W.

Gilbert, and Thomas Hood. Prodigies and Prodigals provides a hilarious take-off of "Fidgety Philip," whose nerves and lack of appetite are quickly cured.

The result is a foregone conclusion. The Guinness booklets are the acme of advertising neatness and wit, adroit and genial adaptations of popular classics of verse to promote a product.

The parodies I have looked at here are testimony to the adaptability of Struwwelpeter and its classic status as an English nursery book.

Struwwelpeter has certainly declined in popularity in Britain since World War II , with the result that English parodies have disappeared. The processes of socialization and education have to an overwhelming extent had their threatening and coercive aspect removed, so Struwwelpeter has gradually become an isolated phenomenon.

Peter Skrine, Rosemary E. Wallbank-Turner, and Jonathan West Stuttgart: Zu einer unbekannten politischen Struwwelpeterparodie aus Indien," Aus dem Antiquariat , no.

Kari Verlag Kathrin Richter, The term "peeler" is derived from the surname of Sir Robert Peel — , who with the Metropolitan Police Act in introduced the first disciplined police force into London.

Until the age of nineteen he had been of reasonable proportions, though tall, but afterward he gradually increased in size and, after a period in which he was the keeper of the prison in Leicester, gained an additional income by charging people who wanted to see for themselves how corpulent he was.

The Napier was a racing car produced by the firm of D. Napier and Son, the first leading manufacturer of such vehicles.

In a Napier achieved a world land speed record of It was obviously much in the public eye and well suited for inclusion in Petrol Peter. Born on 27 September , our author is credited in the British Library catalogue with nothing other than The Marlborough Struwwelpeter.

John Murray , Williams left Marlborough in midsummer and read Classical Moderations at Balliol College, Oxford, gaining a first-class degree and entering the Indian Civil Service in These biographical details are taken from The Marlborough College Register from — , 8th ed.

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Dorfes Privilegio von Von dem Besizzer und dem titulo possessionis. Heinrich Goertz laut Kauf Contract vom Von den Schulden und anderen Real Verbindlichkeiten.

Zu Bezug aller Lasten Baltzerin zugefallenen Erbtheils, zustehende und von dem Vormunde Peter Goertz Januar baar geliehene fl: Gulden a den fl zu 30gr preuss.

Und damit dieser Kauf und Verkauf stimmt er Geschehen in obigem Datum ut supra gez. Ich Heinrich Goertz bekenne wie oben vermeldet gez.

Ich Adrian Gertz bekenne wie oben vermeldt Zum 1ten abgezahletfl wieder abgezahletfl etc. Ich endes unterschriebener bekenne vor mich und meine Ehefrau Erben und Erbnehmer, dass ich heute dato anno den 1.

Januar von dem Ehrb. Peter Goertz alhier auf Gr. Adrian Goertz wohnhaftig in Gr. Lubin als Schuldner bekenne wie oben vermeldet. Gross Lubin den Actum Domainen Justiz Amt Graudenz den Nach dem Abschluss des Inventarii vom Maria und Peter vertheilt.

Actum Domainen Justiz Amt Graudenz den 1. Vorgelesen, genehmigt und unterschrieben gez. Wir dass heute dato den 6. Peter Frantzes seiner Behausung, ein aufrichtiger und unwiederruflicher Kauf und Handel geschehen und geschlossen worden zwischen den Ehrb.

Peter Frantz, wohlbeliebter Mitnachbar allhier, an den Ehrb. Nachbarn Johann Wiegang u. Damit aber dieser Kauf und Handel, wie alle benimte Puncte fest u.

Marcin Sturmowski Kupiel gez. Andreas Kisau Schultz gez. So geschehen Gross Lubin den Peter Frantz xxx bedeutet Agnetha Franz geborene Barthel gez.

Jon Sturmowsky xxx Catharina Sturmowska geborene Lukowska gez. Peter Frantz xxx Agnetha Franz geborene Barthel gez. Jon Sturmowsky xxx Catharina Sturmowski geborene Lukowska gez.

Marcin Sturmowski Graudenz, An den Johann Sturmowski in Gross Lubin. Zugleich wird ihm bekannt gemacht, dass sowohl die zur Ingrossation Mosch obligat und keinesweges berechtigt sein, sich unter irgend einem Vorwand bei ein andere Regiments engagieren zu lassen.

Gegeben Graudenz den Actum Graudenz den Nachdem ich auch den Rest der im Contract vom Peter Goerz als Vormund der Anna Boldtin.

Peter Goerz welches zugleich unter unserer Unterschrift und beigedruckten Gerichtssiegel infidem attestiert wird. Boltin dem Peter Goertz Later follows a black groovy monster, called "Gebeine".

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